Agricultural Manual of Requirements and Guidelines - Ag MORAG

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5B – Overseas Trade Aspects of Residues in Food Commodities


The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) has developed these requirements with the assistance of chemical and commodity industry associations and relevant government departments. The requirements outline APVMA requirements for submission of information and data relating to the impact on overseas trade of residues of agricultural and veterinary chemicals in food commodities, in support of an application submitted to the APVMA for registration of an agricultural or veterinary chemical product. Information and data submitted in this part of the application, form part of the residues evaluation and assessment of the product (see Part 5A, Residues).

For information on all other overseas trade matters, including residues in wool and non-chemical matters, applicants should refer to Part 9 (Other Trade Aspects).

This version of Part 5B replaces previous publications, particularly those which appeared in the NRA Gazette of 6 February 1996 and 3 September 1996. It explains the APVMA’s requirements for submission of information for trade evaluation, and for publication and consultation on trade issues. These requirements now provide for a combination of measures that maintain the public consultative arrangements while also allowing more targeted notification of actions to specific primary industry sectors and government agencies at a level consistent with likely trade risks.

1.1.   Reference materials

The details of documents referred to in these instructions are given under References. Since many of these documents are updated regularly, applicants should ensure that they obtain the latest editions of reference materials.

1.2.   Background

The presence of residues in export commodities above the standards set for that commodity by an importing country can adversely affect trade. Australia has experienced a number of damaging episodes that have interrupted trade following the detection of residue levels above those allowed in the importing country, particularly in livestock commodities.

Maximum residue limits (MRLs, also known as tolerances in some countries) of chemicals in food commodities are established by countries where the chemicals are approved and used in accordance with their approved uses. MRLs can therefore vary from country to country due to different use patterns and other factors. Consequently, legitimate use of a chemical in Australia, including adherence to the registered/approved use pattern, can give rise to residues that exceed the standards of importing countries while complying with Australia’s standards.

The APVMA considers potential trade issues as part of the registration process for agricultural and veterinary chemical products.

1.3.   The APVMA’s regulatory obligations

In considering applications for the registration of Agvet products, the APVMA is obliged under the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Code to be satisfied that, amongst other things, use of the chemical product according to the registered use pattern would not unduly prejudice trade or commerce between Australia and other countries.

To assist its deliberations regarding trade, the APVMA consults with relevant parties, including Commonwealth/State/Territory government authorities and grower/producer organisations before approving an agricultural or veterinary product. This consultation includes publication in the APVMA Gazette of a notice of relevant information relating to the individual chemical product and/or use concerned, and/or inclusion of information in a public release summary (PRS) or trade advice notice (TAN).

The publication of a Gazette Notice, a PRS or a TAN is routinely required for establishing an MRL for any compound/commodity combination where an MRL does not currently exist in Australia, or where changes to product registrations result in an increase in existing MRLs.

PRSs or TANs will therefore be used to advise the public and primary producers/growers of residues and trade issues, and to seek their views (see Table 1). This consultation process is conducted under the authority of Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (Administration) Act 1992 (section 8).

Table 1:  Publication and notification policy for Agvet products

New product/active
Extensions of use
Amendment to MRL standard
Gazette Notice
Yes (a)
Yes (a)
Public release summary
Trade advice notice / fact sheets
Yes (b)
Yes (b)
Form of consultation prior to registration / approval
  • Actively seek public comment
  • Refer to AQIS and States
  • Refer to relevant user group/s (peak body) and affected non-user group/s
  • Refer to relevant user group/s (peak body) and affected non-user group/s
  • Refer to AQIS and States
  • Refer to relevant user group(s) (peak body) and affected non-user group(s)

Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service


  1. As per current arrangements, ie brief gazette entry, limited detail.
  2. Trade advice notes will be available only for commodities included in Appendix 1.


2.1.   Applications requiring overseas trade or commerce information

Proposed use of a new product or extension of use of a registered product on the commodities listed in Appendix 1 will require submission of trade information for those commodities, if residues are above the analytical limit of quantification (LOQ). The key commodities listed in Appendix 1 have been selected on the basis of both volume of trade (expressed as a dollar value) and the potential impact that the presence of residues in a commodity would have on Australia’s total export trade.

Use of a product on commodities not listed in Appendix 1 will not require trade information unless:

  • a stockfood derived from treated materials has residues above the LOQ and produces residues in animal tissues when fed to an animal group listed in Appendix 1; or
  • treated pastures and crops, which can be fed to or grazed by stock, have quantifiable residues and produce residues in animal tissues when fed to an animal group listed in Appendix 1.

Commodities considered as stockfoods are listed in Appendix 2. The information listed in Appendices 1 and 2 may be amended from time to time. This will be undertaken following consultation and publication of the revised information in the APVMA Gazette.

Full trade information (described later) is required when either:

  • quantifiable residues are present in any treated commodity listed in Appendix 1. Trade information is required for each such commodity; or
  • quantifiable residues in livestock result from the feeding of treated commodities or stubbles or by-products from treated crops. Trade information is required for both the animal commodity, and the stockfood commodity if it is listed in Appendix 1.

The following decision tree outlines whether data will be required:

Flowchart - Applications requiring overseas trade or commerce information

2.2.   Communication of trade information

The APVMA must be satisfied that registration of an agvet product will not lead to undue prejudice to trade. In being satisfied, the APVMA considers a range of factors, including:

  • whether a potential trade risk exists (eg due to inconsistencies between Australian and trading partner’s MRLs);
  • the applicant’s proposals to minimise an identified trade risk; and
  • the capacity of affected industries to manage any such risk.

Acceptable strategies (both short-term and longer-term) to manage identified trade risks include the establishment and effective communication of export intervals, the establishment of bilateral import tolerances, and alternative industry-specific management strategies. Applicants are also encouraged to consider making a submission to Codex for the establishment of an appropriate Codex MRL. The applicant should consult with both the user industry and any other affected industries when developing their proposed strategy for communicating trade advice.

The APVMA requires that the applicant address the communication of this trade information to all relevant stakeholders in all relevant commodity production chains. Communication should occur by including appropriate export intervals (EIs) or generic export statements on labels, supported by any/all of the following:

  • an entry on a web-site database;
  • in a brochure; or
  • through the company’s information telephone number.

The APVMA notes that commodity industries have or are developing mechanisms to facilitate effective ‘whole-of chain’ communication of trade advice. Trade risk management mechanisms, such as vendor declarations, are widely used for livestock and stockfoods. The APVMA will take particular note of how the applicant’s proposed communication strategy integrates with industry measures to manage trade risks when determining whether it is ‘satisfied’ that a product’s registration will not cause undue prejudice to trade.

For commodity industries NOT included in Appendix 1, a statement on the label may be the only means of alerting the user to the possibility of trade risks through use of the product.

2.3.   Export trade advice on product labels

The APVMA and commodity industries support information on export intervals (EIs) being freely available. All methods of promoting and communicating EIs are encouraged, including information on the label, education campaigns, web-site listings, publication of lists, point-of-sale material, quality assurance programs, and vendor-declarations.

The APVMA considers the inclusion of trade information on the label to be essential where chemicals are used on livestock and crop commodities listed in Appendix 2.

Where EIs are proposed or required to minimise any trade risks to commodities listed in Appendix 1, the APVMA anticipates that applicants will include the actual export interval value on the label, unless more appropriate industry-based strategies have been determined in consultation with the commodity industry. More information about export intervals is found in section 3 below.

The APVMA will consider alternative proposals for the communication of EIs. Any alternative proposals must achieve the following:

  • integration with strategies which minimise trade risk measures already implemented by users
  • integration with strategies which minimise trade risk measures already implemented by commodity industries
  • facilitation of an effective whole-of-chain communication of trade information.

Where time beyond the withholding period (WHP) is not required to minimise trade risk, and hence an EI that is different to the WHP is ‘not required’, the APVMA again anticipates that applicants will include on the label a statement that indicates this, for example:

Export Slaughter Interval – same as the withholding period

Where specific EIs are not required or included on a label (ie where affected commodities are not listed in Appendix 1), the APVMA requires the inclusion of an appropriate generic statement on the label of all products used on food crops or stockfoods if residues above LOQ are present at the conclusion of the withholding period.

Suggested generic trade advice statements are:

EXPORT TRADE ADVICE – TREATED STOCK: Treated animals destined for export may require extra time between treatment and slaughter to be accepted in some export markets. Before you use this product, you are advised to contact [insert company name here] and/or your industry body about any potential trade issues and their management.

(this statement would be used on products used for direct treatment of food animals)

EXPORT TRADE ADVICE – TREATED CROPS: Treated crop commodities destined for export may require extra time being allowed between application and harvest, to be accepted in some export markets. Before you use this product, you are advised to contact [insert company name here] and/or your industry body about any potential trade issues and their management.

(this statement would be used on products used for direct application to food crops)

EXPORT TRADE ADVICE – LIVESTOCK: Consumption by livestock of any materials previously treated with this product, may produce residues in the animal that might not be acceptable in some export markets. Before you use this product you are advised to contact [insert company name here] and/or the relevant livestock industry body about any potential trade issues and their management. You should also be prepared to inform other livestock producers, who intend using the material as stockfeed, of its chemical exposure history.

(this statement would be used, where appropriate in conjunction with Statement 2, if a product’s use on food crops raises animal commodity trade issues)

The advice must cover both the grower, who may also produce livestock, and any other livestock producer who may feed affected material, for example, someone to whom the grower sells treated material or someone who agists stock on the treated crop/stubble.

The statements aim to inform the user of possible trade issues associated with their use of an Agvet chemical, and to provide sources of further information to identify and manage trade risks.


Export Intervals (EIs) are important tools in the management of undue prejudice to trade. EIs are advisory (non-statutory) periods, proposed in conjunction with the affected grower/producer industries and the agricultural/veterinary chemical industry.

EIs assist producers, growers, processors and exporters to comply with import standards of trading partners when they are lower than the respective Australian MRLs, or where trading partners have not set MRLs for the particular chemical/commodity combinations. EIs will either be the same as, or greater than the relevant WHP.

EIs will normally be set to ensure that export product meets the lower of either the Codex MRL or the lowest residue standard observed by a major trading partner. For cattle, pig and sheep meat, liver and kidney, the major trading partners to be considered are listed in Appendix 3.

EIs must not be confused with Australian withholding periods (WHPs), which relate only to Australian MRLs. A WHP statement is a statutory statement required to appear on approved labels as part of the Australian use pattern for pesticide or veterinary medicinal products (Agvet Code s14(3)g(v)).

Adequate residues data are required for the establishment of both WHPs and EIs.

Data required to allow the determination of an EI should show the chemical’s depletion down to the lowest MRL/tolerance of the major trading markets for that commodity. When a trading partner has no MRL or tolerance established, the target value is the analytical limit of quantification (LOQ). Consequently, data are required for the extended time period required for residues to comply with the MRL/tolerance of all major markets.

Applicants are expected to consult with user and affected industries to determine EIs that are practical and manageable for the affected industries. In some cases it will be possible to provide chemical users and affected industries with several EI options. For example with treated stockfoods, there may be alternatives of observing either an export animal feed interval prior to grazing or cutting the feed, or an export grazing interval, or an export slaughter interval.

The provision and communication of all available export interval options is encouraged.

Applicants are requested to propose an EI in their application, based on the residues data and the lowest MRL/tolerance of the major trading partners of that commodity.

Four different types of EIs can be defined according to the nature of the chemical product and the type of food commodity involved:
  1. Export slaughter interval
  2. Export harvest interval
  3. Export animal feed interval
  4. Export grazing interval (relating to continuous grazing).

3.1.   Export slaughter interval

The export slaughter interval (ESI) is the minimum period of time that should elapse between:

  • the last treatment of an animal with a veterinary chemical product and the slaughter of that animal for export

  • the removal of grazing livestock to clean pasture or feed, and slaughter, where the livestock have been grazing the crop/pasture prior to expiry of the export animal feed interval.

3.2.   Export harvest interval

The export harvest interval (EHI) is the minimum time that should elapse between the last application of an agricultural chemical product (pesticide) to a crop, and harvesting of the commodity for export.

Where a treated commodity may be either exported, or used in Australia as a stock feed for animals destined for export (eg wheat grain), it may be necessary to determine both an EHI and an export animal feed interval EAFI (see 3.3).

3.3.   Export animal feed interval

The export animal feed interval (EAFI) is the minimum period that should elapse between the application of a chemical to a crop or pasture and grazing or harvesting of the crop/pasture as stockfood for animals intended to be slaughtered for export.

Where a treated commodity may be either fed to animals destined for export or exported as a commodity it may be necessary to determine both an EAFI and an EHI.

3.4.   Export grazing interval

The export grazing interval (EGI) is the minimum period that should elapse between the application of a chemical to a crop or pasture and the slaughter of animals for export, where those animals have continuously grazed the treated crop or pasture from the time the chemical was applied.

There could be some situations where the required EGI is unsuited to normal animal, crop or pasture management. It may be necessary to determine and observe an ESI where animals are removed to untreated feed, to enable managing tissue residues for trade.


To enable the APVMA to make its decision on residues-in-trade and commerce matters, relevant information is required in applications for all chemicals that are used on any of the food commodity groups listed in Appendix 1. The information is required where there is the establishment of, or an increase in, any Australian MRL that will be the subject of a gazette notice, PRS or TAN, as the case may be.

The only exceptions may be where an MRL for a commodity is reduced or where quantifiable residues do not occur. If the product is already registered overseas, but has a different use pattern and/or MRLs, it is likely that detailed trade information will be required with the application, for inclusion in the gazette notice, PRS or TAN.

4.1.   Products used on crop commodities not listed in Appendix 1

For products used on crop commodities not listed in Appendix 1, and not used as stockfood, the submission of trade data for the commodity is not required (see paragraph 4.3). However, applicants should include a generic trade statement on their proposed label.

4.2.   Products used on commodities not listed in Appendix 1 and fed to livestock

Submission of trade data for commodities NOT listed in Appendix 1 is not required. However, trade information is required for affected animal group(s) if the treated commodity or its stubble or other by-product:

  • is used as stockfood;

  • contains quantifiable residues.

Details of the data requirements are shown in Table 2. Animal transfer data are also required (see Residues Guideline 1: Animal transfer studies). Applicants should include generic trade statement(s) on their proposed label.

4.3.   Products used on commodities listed in Appendix 1, with quantifiable residues not expected

The submission of trade residues data is not required for products used on commodity groups listed in Appendix 1 where submitted residues data demonstrate no quantifiable residues at the expected withholding period in either treated commodities or in any stockfood.

4.4.   Products used on commodities listed in Appendix 1, with quantifiable residues expected

Trade residues data are required where quantifiable residues occur in a commodity listed in Appendix 1, and where MRLs are being either established or expected to be raised from their present value as a result of the direct application of the product to the commodity or animal. Table 2 lists the trade data requirements and setting out for data Part 5B (Overseas Trade Aspects) of an application for registration of agricultural or veterinary chemical products.

Furthermore, trade information is also required for any affected animal group(s) if the treated commodity, or its stubbles or other by-products:

  • is used as stockfood; and
  • produces quantifiable residues in animal tissues when fed to any animal group listed in Appendix 1.

Details of the data requirements are shown in Table 2. Animal transfer data are also required.

4.5.   Data requirements

Applicants should include all pertinent information to demonstrate that, when the chemical product is used as proposed and due account is taken of relevant residue management strategies, food commodity residues will comply with residue standards that currently apply in relevant export markets.

Each subject specified in Table 2 should be addressed in the manner indicated in the table. Where definitive information is not provided, the subject heading should be specified and an explanation of why such information has not been provided should be given (for example, ‘not considered relevant’ or ‘no information available’). Reasons or justification should be given for all statements made.

Table 2:  Overseas trade information required for each food commodity

Subject Information required Comments
1. Table of contents A listing of the sections included in Part 5B submission and their page numbers.  
2. Summary Provide a brief summary of the overall situation.Identify the food commodity(s) concerned and the country/countries to which Australia exports the commodity. Specify whether any potential trade problem exists with the country / countries concerned. Indicate the nature of any potential problem. The summary should provide an overview of the proposal. Include general information as well as a brief summary of all data/information supporting the proposal.The information should assist the APVMA (and other authorities and growers) to evaluate particular features of the product that might cause potential trade problems (if any) associated with the food commodity(s) concerned.Clearly indicate the nature of any potential trade p rob lem, for example, contravention of MRL(s) in the country concerned, use of the chemical prohibited in specific countries.
3. Overseas registration status Indicate overseas registrations or impending registrations. Also indicate where registration has been withdrawn. Whilst this may appear elsewhere in the application, repeat it in this section.
4. Use patterns in relevant overseas countries Indicate registered/approved use patterns in overseas countries where the commodity(s) is/are traded.   Relevant directions for use are required, including, as applicable:
  • insect, disease, weed, pest;
  • crop, animal, situation;
  • rate, dose;
  • frequency of treatments;
  • number of repeat treatments;
  • withholding period(s); and
  • critical comments.
Use attachments if necessary. Copies of overseas registered labels may be attached (if in English).
5. MRLs in overseas countries Specify the current relevant MRL(s), and residue definition(s) that apply in the overseas market countries.Alternatively, indicate any action taken, or planned to be taken, to obtain/amend MRLs (including ‘import tolerances’) in overseas countries. Assistance in obtaining overseas MRLs is provided in Appendix 3.
6. Codex MRLs (CXLs) Indicate current relevant CXL(s), and residue definition(s).Indicate any action taken, or planned to be taken, to obtain/amend CXL(s). Information could also include recommendations from either CCPR or CCRVDF that are currently under consideration. Indicate when the applicant would be prepared to submit to Codex, if applicable.
7. Label Include a copy of the label, including appropriate trade statements. Generic trade statements are not required when an export interval value is included on the label.
8. Other relevant information Include any other information considered relevant.Include details of any proposed trade risk management strategies and associated communication strategy. Describe (where relevant) how any ‘import tolerances’ affect other export (competitor) countries and how they may have dealt with such problems. Indicate results of any relevant trade risk consultations with authorities and or grower/producer organisations.
9. EI proposal (when appropriate) An EI proposal.An outline of the methodology and assumptions used in the estimation of the EI.  
10. Draft information for gazette notice, public release summary (PRS) or trade advice note (TAN) Provide trade advice information for consideration for inclusion in the gazette notice, PRS or TAN, as the case may be, and which may also be used where applicants have agreed to early release for consultative purposes. Provision of information allows consideration of the Applicant’s view for finalisation of the gazette notice, PRS or TAN.Use attachment(s) if necessary.The format for information for inclusion in a gazettal, PRS or TAN is given in Section 5.
11. Release of trade advice information to authorities and growers Applicants should indicate at what stage during the assessment of the application the draft trade advice information could be released for comment by authorities and growers. Applicants are encouraged to allow appropriate early release of the trade advice information during the assessment process.


Difficulties may be encountered in obtaining certain information such as overseas MRLs. The APVMA will take these difficulties into account in considering applications. Nonetheless, applicants must recognise that in making assessments, the APVMA will of necessity rely on the information submitted in the application. Information on how to find some overseas MRL information is given in Appendix 4.

Where the proposed use of the chemical product is anticipated to result in quantifiable residues in more that one food commodity, and the information to be submitted is different for each affected commodity, separate information should be provided for each commodity.


The format for information submitted for use in public consultation referred to in Table 2 (10) should use the following subject headings:

  1. Commodity/ies exported
  2. Country/ies where these commodities are exported
  3. Proposed Australian use pattern for the product
  4. Overseas registrations and use patterns
  5. MRLs of main overseas markets and Codex
  6. Proposed Australian MRLs
  7. Potential prejudice to trade
  8. Proposed strategies to minimise trade risk
  9. Conclusions

If an applicant agrees, this draft information can be released for consideration by authorities and growers during the assessment of the application (ie before public release gazettal) to facilitate the public consultation process. To indicate consent, applicants should clearly state that permission is given to release the draft trade advice information. It should also indicate the stage of assessment at which release is considered acceptable.


Active constituent

The substance or substances in a formulated product which is/are primarily responsible for the biological or other effects that make the product an agricultural or veterinary chemical product.

Agricultural chemical product

A substance or mixture of substances defined by s4 of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Code Act 1994.

APVMA Gazette

See Gazette.


The Codex Alimentarius Commission was created in 1963 by FAO and WHO to develop food standards such as MRLs, guidelines and related texts such as codes of practice under the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program. The main purposes of this program are protecting health of the consumers and ensuring fair trade practices in the food trade, and promoting coordination of all food standards work undertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organizations.

Export Interval (EI)

EIs are advisory times that should be observed allowing exporters of food commodities to meet the residues standards of a trading partner. They relate to the time between the last administration or feeding of a chemical product to livestock, or last application to crops, and the slaughter or harvesting of those livestock or crops for export.

The EIs referred to in this document, including export slaughter interval (ESI), export harvest interval (EHI), export animal feed interval (EAFI), and export grazing interval (EGI), are commencing on page 9.


The Commonwealth of Australia Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Gazette published monthly (with additional special gazettes published from time to time) and available either from the APVMA website at, or Australian Government publications

Limit of Quantification (LOQ)

The minimum concentration of analyte in a test sample that can be determined with acceptable precision (repeatability) and accuracy under the stated conditions of the test.

Maximum residue limit (MRL)

The maximum concentration of a chemical residue that is legally permitted in or on a food or food commodity. The concentration is expressed in milligrams of the residue per kilogram of the food (mg/kg). The APVMA advises Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) of changes to Australian MRLs, which are then incorporated into the Food Standards Code at section 1.4.2.

MRL Standard

The MRL Standard - Maximum residue limits in food and animal feedstuff is published by the APVMA and lists the maximum residue limits recommended by the APVMA for agricultural and veterinary chemicals registered for use in Australia.

Public Release Summary (PRS)

A published report which summarises the APVMA’s evaluation of a agricultural or veterinary chemical product and its proposed determination on safety, efficacy and suitability of the product for registration. The PRS is released so that members of the public and relevant industry bodies may have an opportunity to raise matters of concern about human, animal and environmental safety, efficacy, and trade before a final decision on registration is made.


As defined in the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Code Act 1994. Section 3, with specific definitions for individual chemicals found in Table 3 of the MRL Standard.


Includes pasture, forage and fodder crops, silage, hay, straw, chaff, grain, manufactured stockfood and by-products, and other substances intended for feeding to animals, but does not include a stock medicine, a stockfood additive, a stockfood non-active constituent, or a medicated stockfood. (Appendix 2 lists generally accepted stockfoods.)


See MRL.

Trade Advice Notice (TAN)

A published report with respect to a chemical product proposed for registration, which gives an assessment of the impact of residues of that product on Australia’s exports of:

  • plant product exports derived from plants treated with the relevant chemical;
  • animals and animal products that may contain residues following direct application to an animal; and
  • animal products that may contain residues of the chemical following the consumption of stockfood derived from crops treated with the chemical or from stockfood that may have contained residues from spray drift.

The TAN identifies Australia’s trading partners for the commodity (by name and by volume); any MRLs or tolerance levels set in these countries for the relevant chemical; and whether scientific data have been assessed to substantiate the LOQ or any proposed export interval. A TAN is made available for public comment, which are considered by the APVMA in deciding whether or not it is satisfied that registration of the chemical product will not unduly prejudice trade.


The combination of all factors involved in the use of a formulated product, including the concentration of active constituent in the preparation being applied, rate of application, method of application, frequency and duration of treatments, additives recommended and other directions which determine total quantity applied, timing of treatment and withholding period(s).

Veterinary chemical product

A substance or mixture of substances defined by s4 of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Code Act 1994.

Withholding period (WHP)

The minimum period that needs to elapse between the last use of the product in relation to a crop, pasture or animal and the harvesting or cutting of, or the grazing of animals on, the crop or pasture, the shearing or slaughter of the animal, or the collection of milk or eggs from the animal for human consumption, as the case may be, in order to ensure that the product’s residues fall to or below the Australian maximum residue limit.


All APVMA guidelines for registration requirements and labelling are available from the APVMA website.

The MRL Standard is also available from the APVMA website.

The following could also be useful in preparing trade information:

  • Australian Commodity Statistics. Produced annually by Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics.

APPENDIX 1:  Export food commodity groups requiring submission of data

Cattle 1

Cattle dairy products 1

Pigs 1

Sheep 1

Goats 1

Poultry and eggs 1

Cereal grains

Citrus fruit

Grapes and wine (including dried grapes)

Oilseeds – canola seed and cottonseed (including derived oils and meals)

Pome fruit

Pulses – lupins, field peas, chickpeas, faba beans, navy beans, mung beans

Stone fruit


Oaten hay

APPENDIX 2:  Commodities generally accepted as stockfood

This list provides examples of commodities that are generally accepted as being fed to animals and the maximum proportion normally expected in the diet. The list is not exclusive and may be altered as livestock feeding patterns change.

Commodity Examples Proportion in diet (%) for different species
Grains wheat, oats, barley, triticale, rice, maize/corn, millet, sorghum, rye
Processed grain fractions (excluding grain dust) pollard, bran, millrun, wheat germ, brewers grain, malt combings, biscuits, bread, hominy, semolina
Pulses/legumes succulent or mature dried seed and immature pods of leguminous plants peas (eg. field pea, chick pea, cow pea, pigeon pea), beans (eg adzuki, faba, kudzu, mung, navy, winged), lentils, soya beans, lupins
Oilseeds cotton seed, sunflower seed, safflower seed, rape/canola seed, linseed, sesame seed
Plant protein meals oilseed meals, peanut meal, soya bean meal, copra meal, palm kernel meal
Molasses/sugar raw or processed sugar, molasses
Fruit by-products (does not include cannery wastes) citrus pulp, pineapple pulp, fruit pomaces, grape marc, grape pomace
Pasture grass and legume pastures and mixed grass/legume pastures
Fodder hay or silage or straw of legumes, grasses and cereals; sugar cane tops; sweet corn cannery wastes; oilseed fodders, and trash
Forage cereal forage, oilseed forage, legume forage, stubbles of legume, cereal, grain and oilseed crops, etc.
Fodder vegetables field turnips, kale, beets
Tomato pomace  


For estimation of animal commodity MRLs, commodities listed below are assumed to be fed at proportions not exceeding 5% of the animal diet on a dry matter basis.

Vegetables and their stubbles (excluding vegetables grown specifically for grazing or fodder)

Waste fruit (excluding fruit by-products)

Vegetable by-products (eg potato peels)

Cannery waste and by-products (excluding sweet corn cannery waste)

Oils/fats (eg vegetable oils, tallow)

APPENDIX 3:  Markets for consideration in export slaughter interval determination for cattle, pigs and sheep

The Codex MRL standard and the standards of the following markets for meat (fat), kidney and liver will be considered in export slaughter interval establishment for cattle, pigs and sheep.

  Cattle Pig Sheep
Republic of Korea
Saudi Arabia


APPENDIX 4:  MRLs in overseas countries

Assistance in ascertaining the MRLs that apply in overseas countries or Codex can be obtained from a number of sources, including the following web sites:

Canadian MRLs
EU Veterinary
EU Agriculture
Korea (Republic of)
New Zealand
USA Code of Federal Regulations


  1. directly treated with agricultural chemical products; or
  2. derived from treated crops.


Revision Date Description of Revision
1 July 2005 First edition
1 October 2005

Second edition

  • changed formatting
  • corrected hyperlink to Canadian MRLs.
1 April 2006

Third edition

  • updated hyperlink to Japanese agricultural chemical MRLs.
1 July 2007

Third edition

  • no changes
7 May 2010

Fifth edition

  • inserted tomato pomace – Appendix 2
  • inserted major markets for cattle, pig and sheep meat and offal ESI determination. – Appendix 3
  • updated MRL links – Appendix 4